Chain Abstraction Guide

A chain abstraction integration will generally involve two steps: writing an adapter contract and constructing calldata for users to send.

The Chain Abstraction Reference is an example repository with adapter contracts and a frontend that implements the full stack of the integration. We'll be referencing code from it in this guide.

Adapter Contract

The adapter is a smart contract that integrators must build. It should implement the xReceive interface and be deployed to all destination chains that the integrating protocol supports. After the user's transaction has been dispatched and their funds/data arrive on the destination chain, this contract will be called to handle all the execution logic for the protocol.

The execution logic includes a swap and a "forward call". The swap converts the Connext-bridged asset into the asset that will be used for the protocol's function call (a.k.a "target function"). The forward call is where the adapter contract actually calls the "target function".

The following sections will walk through how to implement these two parts.


Assuming you're using Foundry, you can add the Connext contracts to your project by running the following command to install the connext-integration repository as a submodule:

forge install connext/connext-integration

The library will be installed to lib/connext-integration.


The SwapForwarderXReceiver is an audited abstract contract that should be implemented by adapter contracts.

abstract contract SwapForwarderXReceiver is ForwarderXReceiver, SwapAdapter {
  using Address for address;

  /// @dev The address of the Connext contract on this domain.
  constructor(address _connext) ForwarderXReceiver(_connext) {}

   * @notice Prepare the data by calling to the swap adapter. Return the data to be swapped.
   * @dev This is called by the xReceive function so the input data is provided by the Connext bridge.
   * @param _transferId The transferId of the transfer.
   * @param _data The data to be swapped.
   * @param _amount The amount to be swapped.
   * @param _asset The incoming asset to be swapped.
  function _prepare(
    bytes32 _transferId,
    bytes memory _data,
    uint256 _amount,
    address _asset
  ) internal override returns (bytes memory) {
    (address _swapper, address _toAsset, bytes memory _swapData, bytes memory _forwardCallData) = abi.decode(
      (address, address, bytes, bytes)

    uint256 _amountOut = this.exactSwap(_swapper, _amount, _asset, _toAsset, _swapData);

    return abi.encode(_forwardCallData, _amountOut, _asset, _toAsset, _transferId);

Notice that the _prepare function expects a bytes memory _data parameter that will be decoded into:

  • _swapper: The specific swapper that will be used for the swap on the destination domain.

  • _toAsset: The asset that should be swapped into.

  • _swapData: The encoded swap data that will be constructed offchain (using the Chain Abstraction SDK in the next section).

  • _forwardCallData: The forward call data that the receiver contract will call on the destination domain.

Adapter Contract

The adapter inherits SwapForwarderXReceiver and implements the _forwardFunctionCall method.

For example, let's take a look at the Greeter from the Chain Abstraction Reference repo and pretend that this is the existing contract for a protocol that wants to use the chain abstraction pattern.

pragma solidity ^0.8.19;

import {IERC20} from "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol";

interface IGreeter {
  function greetWithTokens(address _token, uint256 _amount, string calldata _greeting) external;

contract Greeter is IGreeter {
  string public greeting;
  IERC20 public WETH;

  event GreetingUpdated(string _greeting);

  constructor(address _WETH) {
    WETH = IERC20(_WETH);

  function greetWithTokens(address _token, uint256 _amount, string calldata _greeting) external override {
    IERC20 token = IERC20(_token);

    require(_token == address(WETH), "Token must be WETH");
    require(_amount > 0, "Amount cannot be zero");
      token.allowance(msg.sender, address(this)) >= _amount,
      "User must approve amount"

    token.transferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), _amount);

    greeting = _greeting;
    emit GreetingUpdated(_greeting);

The "target function" we want to call cross-chain is greetWithTokens which takes payment in any amount of WETH to update the greeting.

So GreeterAdapter below is the adapter contract that needs to be created:

pragma solidity ^0.8.19;

import {IERC20} from "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol";
import {SwapForwarderXReceiver} from "lib/chain-abstraction-integration/contracts/destination/xreceivers/Swap/SwapForwarderXReceiver.sol";
import {IGreeter} from "./Greeter.sol";

contract GreeterAdapter is SwapForwarderXReceiver {
  IGreeter public immutable greeter;

  constructor(address _connext, address _greeter) SwapForwarderXReceiver(_connext) {
    greeter = IGreeter(_greeter);

  function _greetWithTokens(address _token, uint256 _amount, string memory _greeting) internal {
    IERC20 token = IERC20(_token);
    token.approve(address(greeter), _amount);
    greeter.greetWithTokens(_token, _amount, _greeting);

  function _forwardFunctionCall(
    bytes memory _preparedData,
    bytes32 /*_transferId*/,
    uint256 /*_amount*/,
    address /*_asset*/
  ) internal override returns (bool) {
    (bytes memory _forwardCallData, uint256 _amountOut, ,) = abi.decode(
      (bytes, uint256, address, address)
    (address _token, string memory _greeting) = abi.decode(_forwardCallData, (address, string));

    // Forward the call
    _greetWithTokens(_token, _amountOut, _greeting);

    return true;

The _forwardFunctionCall function unwraps data which includes arguments for the forward call (greetWithTokens) and the amount of tokens received after the swap. It then "forwards" the call to the greeter contract.

That's it!

Origin Domain Transaction

The second part of the integration is to set up the transaction that users send on the origin domain. This involves a few steps but Connext's Chain Abstraction SDK makes this process easier:

  1. Use getPoolFeeForUniV3 to fetch the poolFee for a specific swap route on the destination domain

  2. Construct the forwardCallData for the integrating protocol's "target function"

  3. Use getXCallCallData to construct the calldata that will be passed into xcall

  4. Use prepareSwapAndXCall to combine the swap and the xcall into a single transaction request

With Connext's Core SDK:

  1. Use estimateRelayerFee to fetch the relayerFee for the xcall

  2. Use calculateAmountReceived to show users the expected amount received on the destination domain


For installing the SDKs, use Node.js v18.

npm install @connext/chain-abstraction @connext/sdk

1) Get the pool fee

First we need to retrieve inputs for the destination swap. The function getPoolFeeForUniV3 returns the poolFee of the UniV3 pool for a given token pair which will be used in the UniV3 router execution. The poolFee is the fee that is charged by the pool for trading tokens.

export const getPoolFeeForUniV3 = async (
  domainId: string,
  rpc: string,
  token0: string,
  token1: string,

The function takes four parameters:

  • domainId: The target domain ID.

  • rpc: The RPC endpoint for a given domain.

  • token0: The first token address.

  • token1: The second token address.

The function returns a Promise that resolves to a string representing the poolFee of the UniV3 pool.


// asset address
const POLYGON_WETH = "0x7ceB23fD6bC0adD59E62ac25578270cFf1b9f619";
const POLYGON_USDC = "0x2791bca1f2de4661ed88a30c99a7a9449aa84174";
// Domain details
const POLYGON_DOMAIN_ID = "1886350457";
const POLYGON_RPC_URL = "";


2) Encode the forward call

This step depends on the target function. In our Greeter example, the encoded calldata is quite simple:

const forwardCallData = utils.defaultAbiCoder.encode(
  ["address", "string"],
  [POLYGON_WETH, "hello world"],

3) Construct the xcall

The getXCallCallData function generates calldata to be passed into xcall. This combines the destination swap and the forward call.

export const getXCallCallData = async (
  domainId: string,
  swapper: Swapper,
  forwardCallData: string,
  params: DestinationCallDataParams,

It takes four parameters.

  • domainId: A string representing the destination domain ID.

  • swapper: A string representing which swapper should be used. It can be UniV2, UniV3, or OneInch.

  • forwardCallData: encoded data for passing into the target contract using abiencoder.

  • params: An object containing the following fields.

      fallback: string;
      swapForwarderData: {
        toAsset: string;
        swapData: {
          amountOutMin: string;
        } | {
          amountOutMin: string;
          poolFee: string;
        forwardCallData: {
          cTokenAddress: string;
          underlying: string;
          minter: string;
        } | {} | {};
  • fallback: The fallback address to send funds to if the forward call fails on the destination domain.

  • swapForwarderData: An object with the following fields.

    • toAsset: Address of the token to swap into on the destination domain.

    • swapData: Calldata that the swapper contract on the destination domain will use to perform the swap.

    • forwardCallData: Calldata that the xReceive target on the destination domain will use in the forward call.

The function returns the encoded calldata as a string.


const params: DestinationCallDataParams = {
  fallback: USER_ADDRESS as `0x${string}`,
  swapForwarderData: {
    toAsset: POLYGON_WETH,
    swapData: {
      amountOutMin: "0",

const xCallData = await connextService.getXCallCallDataHelper(

4) Prepare swap and xcall

The prepareSwapAndXCall function constructs the TransactionRequest that contains the origin swap and xcall.

export const prepareSwapAndXCall = async (
  signerAddress: string,
  params: SwapAndXCallParams,

It takes two parameters:

  • signerAddress (required): The address of the signer to send a transaction from.

  • params: An object containing the following fields:

    • originDomain (required): The origin domain ID.

    • destinationDomain (required): The destination domain ID.

    • fromAsset (required): The address of the asset to swap from.

    • toAsset (required): The address of the asset to swap to.

    • amountIn (required): The number of fromAsset tokens.

    • to (required): The address to send the asset and call with the calldata on the destination.

    • delegate (optional): The fallback address on the destination domain which defaults to to.

    • slippage (optional): Maximum acceptable slippage in BPS which defaults to 300. For example, a value of 300 means 3% slippage.

    • route (optional): The address of the swapper contract and the data to call the swapper contract with.

    • callData (optional): The calldata to execute (can be empty: "0x").

    • relayerFeeInNativeAsset (optional): The fee amount in native asset.

    • relayerFeeInTransactingAsset (optional): The fee amount in the transacting asset.

The function returns a Promise that resolves to a TransactionRequest object to be sent to the RPC provider.


const swapAndXCallParams = {
  originDomain: "1886350457",
  destinationDomain: "6450786",
  fromAsset: OPTIMISM_WETH
  amountIn: "1000000000000000000"; // 1 WETH
  to: signerAddress,
  relayerFeeInTransactingAsset: "100000", // 0.1 USDC

const txRequest = await prepareSwapAndXCall(swapAndXCallParams, signerAddress);

5) Estimate relayer fee

Relayer fees must be paid by the user initiating xcall. The Core SDK exposes an estimateRelayerFee function (see Estimating Fees) that returns an estimate given current gas prices on the origin and destination domains.

6) Estimate amount received

Showing an estimate of the final amount to be used in the destination target function can be informative for users. The getEstimateAmountReceived function returns this estimate which accounts for slippage from the origin and destination swaps as well as the bridge operation itself.

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