How to get started¶
If you’re interested in:
What is Connext?¶
Connext is an infrastructure layer on top of Ethereum that enables instant, high volume transfers and interactions between users. The goal of the Connext Network is to help Ethereum applications scale to large consumer bases by improving their usability and cost. Projects in the space are already using Connext to enable instant wallet to wallet transfers, monetize content with microtransactions, power marketplaces, and build games on the Ethereum mainnet!
Connext does this using state channels. State channels enable users to batch up normal Ethereum transactions without needing to trust intermediaries. State channels do not require any external custodians or add any additional functionality to Ethereum, they simply allow existing Ethereum interactions to occur more quickly and at lower cost by putting more interactions into each block.
If you’re unfamiliar with terms like smart contract and private key, please refer to a more general developer guide such as this one, compiled by the Ethereum community, before continuing.
State Channel Basics¶
State channels allow many off-chain commitments to be aggregated into just a few onchain transactions:
A user opens a channel by depositing their money into a multisignature smart contract with a counterparty. Note that the smart contract runs entirely on the blockchain and so the user remains entirely in custody of their own funds.
The user transacts by sending signed settlement instructions for how the counterparty can retrieve funds from the smart contract. Because the instructions give the counterparty irrevocable access to part of the funds, the user can make multiple “updates” to their balances while only paying the fees of the initial deposit.
When either party is done transacting, they can take the latest update to the smart contract and unlock the finalized funds.
Because there can be arbitrary conditionality to the settlement instructions, the above relationship can be extended to allow users to transact with more parties. For instance, if Alice wants to pay Charlie but only has a channel with Bob, Alice can pay Bob conditionally based on whether he pays Charlie. If the latter part of the transaction is not completed, then Alice’s transaction to Bob will not occur either - this makes transactions atomic and noncustodial.
This arbitrary conditionality also applies to the activities that Alice and Bob can do - anything from simple transfers of Ethereum tokens, to prediction markets, auctions
If you’re looking for more information, here are a few digestible resources on how they work:
V2.0 of Connext is live on the Ethereum mainnet.
V2.0 features a single node system - currently hosted by Connext - over which transactions are routed. Any Connext client can connect to this node. In Connext, users’ funds annd transactions are noncustodial - the node never holds your value at all. Because Connext is centralized, however, it is currently possible for the node to be shut down or transactions censored, which would mean that users would need to withdraw funds onto the base blockchain. For a detailed overview of the trust assumptions and limitations that exist at present, please read System Limitations.
V2.x of Connext will feature routing state updates between nodes and the ability for anyone to connect their own node to the Connext Network. When V2.x is released, we intend to shut down the Connext-hosted node.